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各国代孕法规速览(中英对照版)

文章来源:http://baobeixiu.net  发布日期:2019-06-14

  In which countries is surrogacy legal?

  在哪些国家代孕合法?

各国代孕法规速览(中英对照版)

  Countries such as France, Italy, Finland, Iceland, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Pakistan, and Bulgaria prohibit all forms of surrogacy. Commercial surrogacy (where the surrogate mother is paid beyond reasonable birth expenses) is prohibited in the UK, Australia, Hungary, Canada, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, Hong Kong, Netherlands, and New Zealand.

  有些国家禁止任何形式的代孕,比如法国、意大利、芬兰、冰岛、德国、西班牙、葡萄牙、巴基斯坦和保加利亚。有些国家禁止商业代孕(指除了正常生育补偿之外,还需给代孕妈妈支付额外报酬),比如英国、澳大利亚、匈牙利、加拿大、爱尔兰、丹麦、比利时、荷兰、香港和新西兰。

  People who live in a country where surrogacy is illegal may go abroad if their home country does not allow surrogacy. According to Families Through Surrogacy, an international non-profit surrogacy organization, in 2014, the UK has the highest number of people in Europe seeking surrogacy overseas and the second-highest globally after Australia. The organization estimates that hundreds of UK residents travelled abroad in 2014 to Thailand and the US - the two most common surrogacy destinations.

  如果本国法律不允许代孕,那么想要代孕的人们就会选择海外代孕。根据国际非营利代孕组织“代孕家庭”2014年的统计,英国是欧洲地区寻求海外代孕人数最多的国家,仅次于澳大利亚,居全球第二。数据显示仅2014年一年就有数以万计的英国人前往最热门的代孕目的地泰国跟美国实施代孕。

  Mexico: Tabasco was the only state in Mexico to allow surrogacy. Once viewed as a less expensive alternative to the United States, Tabasco experienced a boom in surrogacy but not without complications. In April of 2015, a San Jose, CA couple experienced a delay in obtaining a birth certificate through Mexican officials after having their son via surrogate. The couple set up a Go Fund Me page in order to help cover hotel costs and legal fees. The intended father stated they chose Mexico as it was “the closest country besides India” where they could arrange surrogacy within their price range. In May of 2015 Mexican authorities issued the birth certificate as an “exception” for the couple through a human rights attorney. In December of that year, Tabasco passed legislation to regulate surrogacy to only Mexican citizens with health insurance that could cover birth expenses. Further, women hiring the surrogate must present proof that they are not able to carry the baby to term and be between the ages of 25 and 40.

  墨西哥:塔巴斯克是墨西哥唯一允许代孕的州。低廉的代孕成本,使这里一度代替美国,成为准父母们的首选之一。也因此塔巴斯科州经历了代孕行业的迅速发展,但一切也并不是一帆风顺的。2015年4月,一对来自美国圣何塞的夫妻由于没有拿到孩子的出生证,不得不延长他们在墨西哥的行程。为了继续支付酒店以及相关法律费用,他们不得不在网上发起众筹。孩子的父亲写到他们选择墨西哥是因为这里的价格仅次于印度,在他们可以接受的范围。2015年5月在人权律师的帮助下,这对夫妻的孩子收到了墨西哥当局特批的出生证。同年十二月,塔巴斯科州通过立法规范代孕。目前在墨西哥代孕只提供给有健康保险并且有能力支付生育费用的墨西哥公民。此外,需要代孕人的代孕女性必须出示不孕不育证明,并且年龄在25岁到40岁之间。

  India: The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016 (India) has been Cabinet approved. The number one proposition on the bill is to abolish commercial surrogacy. One of the proponents of this law is to protect the surrogate mother who many feel are being exploited. This bill is facing backlash from the surrogates who it is proposing to protect. Many of the women who are surrogate mothers are using it as their source of income. If approved in 2017 by Parliament, the law will also ban people who do not hold an Indian passport, as well as Indian single parents and gay people, from having children through surrogacy.

  印度:代孕相关的法律条例《代孕(管制)法案2016》已获内阁批准。法案的第一项条例是废除商业代孕。支持这项法律的人士强调这是保护代孕代孕母亲,许多印度代孕代孕母亲都受到不同程度的剥削。然而这部法案也同时受到一部分代孕代孕母亲的反对。大部分代孕妇女都把代孕当作自己的收入来源。如果此项法案在2017被议会批准,该法律也将禁止不持有印度护照的人以及来自印度单身父母和同性恋者通过代孕生育子女。

  Thailand: Commercial surrogacy was supposedly banned by Thailand's Medical Council in 1997. In 2014, due to a couple of high profile cases involving surrogacy, Thailand decided to move forward in their legislation in order to help regulate the surrogacy system. The world was shocked by the case of “Baby Gammy” in which an Australian couple left their baby boy who was diagnosed with Down’s Syndrome with the surrogate mother but took home his non affected twin sister. That same year a Japanese man named Mitsutoki Shigeta’s case was exposed. Shigeta, the 24 year old son of a billionaire, was found to have spent over $500,000 in surrogacy fees and had fathered 16 surrogate children. These cases and the moniker “Womb of Asia” pushed the Thai government to press for tighter legal restrictions.

  Under the new law, only married Thai couples or couples with one Thai partner who have been married at least three years can seek surrogacy, and commercial surrogacy is banned.

  Anyone caught hiring a surrogate mother faces a maximum jail sentence of 10 years.

  泰国:尽管商业代孕在1997年就已被泰国医学委员会禁止,但直到2014年由于一些涉及代孕的案件接连曝光,泰国司法机构才决定推进代孕领域的立法,从而规范代孕制度。首先曝光的是震惊世界的“Baby Gammy”案,一对澳大利亚夫妇遗弃了他们被诊断出患有唐氏综合征的儿子,把没有患病的孪生妹妹带回家。同年,日本Mitsutoki Shigeta案件被曝光。Shigeta,一个亿万富翁的24岁的儿子,花费超过500000美元的代孕费并生有16代孕子女。泰国,这个曾经的“亚洲子宫”,目前正严正打击各种非法代运行为。根据新法律,只有已婚的泰国夫妇或与已结婚至少三年的泰国伴侣的夫妇才可以寻求代孕,禁止商业代孕。任何人发现雇用代孕母亲面临最高10年监禁。

  The United States:Surrogacy laws in the US vary by state. Much like how country surrogacy laws vary in regard to restriction towards age, sexual orientation, marital status or altruistic vs commercial surrogacy, so do these restrictions/laws vary by state. Americans whose home state does not allow surrogacy may go to another state with more favorable surrogacy laws should their home state be more difficult.

  美国:美国的代孕法律因州而异。就像每个国家的代孕法规对于实施代孕的年龄,性取向,婚姻状况,以及是否商业代孕的规定都不同,同样,美国的每个州的法律规范也不相同。有些在自己的所在州没法实施代孕的美国人,可以去允许代孕的州实施代孕。

  Some states forbid surrogacy. Under Indiana law, surrogacy contracts are “void and unenforceable” though some courts may grant pre birth orders. New York fines anyone who enters into a surrogacy contract up to $10,000. Agencies or lawyers who facilitate such agreements are fined on the first offense and charged with a felony on a second offense. Individuals who enter into surrogacy arrangements in Michigan may be fined up to $50,000 and imprisoned for up to five years.

  有些州是禁止代孕。根据印第安娜法律,尽管法庭可以在孩子出生前宣判孩子的抚养权,但代孕合同是不具有法律效力且不可执行的。在纽约州,任何涉及到代孕合同里相关方要承担高达10000美元。中介机构或者律师若提供相关合同第一次处以罚款,第二次被判重罪。同样,在密歇根州任何代孕合同里涉及的个人将被处以50000美元的罚款并收监5年。

  Some states, such as Washington, permit uncompensated surrogacy arrangements but declare compensated ones void and unenforceable. Under Nebraska law “[a] surrogate parenthood contract entered into shall be void and unenforceable.” This provision applies to compensated surrogacy agreements in which the surrogate “is compensated for bearing a child of a man who is not her husband.”

  美国的一些州,如华盛顿允许无偿代孕但是商业代孕是不具有法律效力的。根据Nebraska的法律,“签订的代孕生育合同是无效且不可执行的。”这一规定适用于商业代孕协议,代孕母亲从帮他人代怀孕收到报酬的情况。

  California law, as established in rulings of the California Supreme Court, is very favorable to surrogacy. In the notable cases of Calvert v. Johnson (1993) and Buzzanca v. Buzzanca (1998), California first established and then reinforced its position that intent governs in the determination of parentage in gestational surrogacy situations. If court documents are properly filed, intended parents can legally be regarded as the baby’s parents before birth.

  加利福尼亚有着非常利于代孕的法律环境。著名的卡尔弗特诉约翰逊的案例(1993)和Buzzanca v. Buzzanca(1998),使得加利福尼亚首次建立并加强了他们对代孕事件中亲子关系确定的态度。如果法庭文件准备充分,准父母在孩子出生前就可以合法地被视为代孕婴儿的亲生父母。

  Nicola Scott, a lawyer with UK family law firm Natalie Gamble Associates, says that about 25% of her firm's clients go to the US, often because they feel it is safer.

  "The US has a very long history of surrogacy. One reason is that the parents know there are established frameworks in many states, particularly California, so there is safety associated with going there," she says.

  英国家庭法律师协会的律师Nicola Scott说,她的公司约有25%的客户选择去美国,这通常是出于安全考虑。美国有很长的代孕历史,父母们知道在许多州都有相应的代孕法律与完善的流程,尤其是加利福尼亚,准父母们感觉去那里代孕更放心。

各国代孕法规速览(中英对照版) 代孕妈妈
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